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Online Workshop on Developing Effective Regulations for Radioactive Source Security

16 February 2021 - 23 February 2021 Online, Public Event

Applications for this event are closed
Workshop on autonomous and remotely operated systems: Benefits and challenges to nuclear security


Effective national regulations form the backbone of efforts both domestically and internationally to protect and secure radioactive sources from cradle to grave, thereby minimising the risk that these materials will be used for malicious purposes by threat actors.

The national legislative and regulatory basis for radioactive source security establishes the requirements for licensees (operators) in relation to security systems and measures that licensees (operators) must develop, maintain and sustain to secure and protect radioactive sources.

The objective of the regulations is usually derived from the international commitments made by each State and by the requirements of the State’s legislation for protection and control of radioactive material. Regulators must understand the difference between prescriptive and performance-based regulation and make their determination as to the style of drafting for their regulations that is most suitable to their situation, having regard to their national drafting style, objectives of the legislative and regulatory framework for radioactive source security and how to measure the effectiveness of the implementation of these regulations.

A regulation for radioactive source security should be clear and implementable. The regulation should be detailed enough so that a licensee knows what is required of them but flexible enough to account for particular situations and changes in the threat environment without requiring constant redrafting. This is why developing an effective regulation for the security of radioactive sources should involve consultation between the regulator, licensees and other key stakeholders, such as consignors and carriers, as well as other relevant competent authorities responsible for foreign affairs, defence, law enforcement, energy, justice, national emergency response, border protection, customs and transport.


The aim of this workshop was to review and discuss matters related to developing effective regulations for the security of radioactive sources during the entire lifecycle of radioactive sources including manufacture, import, export, possession, use, transport, storage, transfer, and recycling, reuse and disposal. Workshop participants were also asked to consider other elements of the regulatory framework governing radioactive sources that impact security.

The key objectives of the workshop were:

  • Reviewing the international framework supporting the development of effective regulations for the safety and security of radioactive sources;
  • Exploring the roles and responsibilities of the various stakeholders in developing regulations;
  • Reviewing the key steps in the process of developing regulations and identifying challenges and opportunities for improvement;
  • Sharing national experience with incorporating international guidance and aspects of national threat assessments into regulations for the security of sources;
  • Exploring aspects of regulatory oversight beyond physical security requirements that affect the overall security of radioactive sources.


This event was open internationally to all individuals involved in the development of regulatory requirements for the security of radioactive sources during manufacture, import, export, possession, use, transport, storage, transfer, and recycling, reuse and disposal. Other individuals involved in regulated or potentially regulated activities involving radioactive sources also found the event of benefit.

WINS is promoting gender diversity in its events, and female delegates were highly encouraged to apply to this workshop.

The application deadline was extended until 14 February 2021.


The workshop was designed around the following areas:

1. International efforts supporting the development of effective source security regulations

  • The international framework for radioactive source security including the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the guidance on Import and Export and the role of the IAEA in supporting the development of regulations for radioactive source security;
  • The IAEA Nuclear Security Series, including the revised Implementing Guides NSS 9 and NSS 11;
  • The role of the IAEA NSS 29-G on Developing Regulations and Associated Administrated Measures for Nuclear Security and of international workshops for drafting regulations;
  • The role of non-governmental organisations in raising awareness of threat actors and developing more effective security arrangements through benchmarking mechanisms, progress reports and other initiatives.

2. Developing regulations for the security of radioactive sources

  • The main elements of good regulations and the importance of engaging diverse stakeholders;
  • National experiences with incorporating international guidance and national threat assessments into the development of regulatory requirements;
  • Aspects of implementation that should be taken into consideration during development of security regulations, such as an inspections programme, as well as security training and corresponding qualifications.

3. Additional regulatory considerations affecting radioactive source security

  • Content from the IAEA Supplementary Guidance on Management of Disused Radioactive Sources regarding legislation, regulations and regulatory body roles and responsibilities;
  • National perspective on developing regulations and/or licensing requirements governing financing of disused source management;
  • National perspective on developing regulations and/or licensing requirements governing the consideration of non-radioisotopic radiation generators;
  • Licensee perspective on how regulations influence technology decision making.

This event was interactive and facilitated. The workshop was built around presentations from invited expert speakers and discussions to further explore best practices for effectively developing regulations for the security of radioactive sources. 

Guest speakers for the live session 1 included the following:

  • Madalina Man, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), USA;
  • Marc Fialkoff, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL);
  • Richard Cupitt, Stimson Center, USA;
  • Mercy Muriithi, Radiation Protection Board, Kenya;
  • Kanchan P Adhikari - NAMS, Bir Hospital, Nepal.

Guest speakers for the live session 2 were:

  • Richard Sseggane, Atomic Energy Council, Uganda;
  • Simon Vleugels, Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC), Belgium;
  • Simon Adu, National Regulatory Authority (NRA), Ghana;
  • Margaret Cervera, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), USA.

Guest speakers for the live session 3 were:

  • Olga Makarovska, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA);
  • Agustin Espejo Mancillas, Tecnofisica Radiologica S.C., Mexico;
  • Ioanna M. Iliopulos, Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), USA;
  • Whitney Isaacs, World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS).

The workshop was conducted online in English for registrants and included 2-hour live sessions between 16-23 February 2021 preceded by a set of on-demand materials.

  • Live Session 1: 16 February 2021, 13:00 – 15:00 (CET)
  • Live Session 2: 18 February 2021, 13:00 – 15:00 (CET)
  • Live Session 3: 23 February 2021, 13:00 – 15:00 (CET)

To gain access to the event materials, please login to your WINS member account.

Contact Information

   Raquel Delgado

   Mehri Avlyakulova


Online Event

Public Event